The Turkmenistan Football Association officially announced that the Turkmenistan Premier League will restart on April 19. In this way, Turkmenistan, along with Belarus, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, and Burundi, has become the only country in the world where the five domestic football leagues are still running (the Taiwanese corporate league has also resumed, but Taiwan is not a country. Included).
With most of the world's football matches suspended, some "hungry" fans are even looking for leagues in these countries to watch. The Belarusian Premier League has also been broadcast in 11 countries. Regardless of the level, these leagues are currently the matches that fans chat to quench their thirst, and are also dubbed the "new five major leagues."
Regardless of the football factor, these five countries are all on the map that need to be carefully searched. Everyone does not know much about them. Among them, Belarus has been subject to many discussions because of its unique country name, such as whether it is "Belarus" or "Belarus". Today, let's explore what is going on with "Belarus".
"Belarus" is a transliteration, but it is also very cleverly translated. To some extent, it can also be regarded as a free translation. Because in Belarusian, the original meaning of their country name is "White Rose". Of course, this pronunciation is similar to the Chinese character "白", which is just a coincidence.
"Ross" is a general term for a region of Eastern Europe in history. We now call Russia "Russia". In fact, in most other languages, the pronunciation of Russia is similar to "Russ", without the word "Russian".
“罗斯”是东欧地区历史上的总称。我们现在将俄罗斯称为“俄罗斯”。实际上，在大多数其他语言中，俄罗斯的发音类似于“ Russ”，没有单词“ Russian”。
For example, Japan called Russia "Lucia" (the Russo-Japanese War they called the Japanese-Russian War), the Qing Dynasty called Russia "Raksha Country" for a while, and Shanghai called Russian-style soup "Borch" soup. The name is "Russia", and the word "Russian" cannot be heard at all. So, where did this "Russia" come from?
The reason why we added "Russ" when calling "Ros" is because of the pronunciation of Mongolian.
When the Mongols call "Ros", they cannot say that directly. In Mongolian, words cannot start with Liuyin. The sound "/r/" is a kind of Liuyin.
当蒙古人称“罗斯”时，他们不能直接说出来。用蒙古语不能以六音开头。声音“ / r /”是一种柳音。
What is Liuyin? It is neither a vowel (the sound produced by the airflow through the mouth without obstruction during the pronunciation) nor a consonant (the airflow is completely or partly obstructed in a certain part of the tuning organ during the tuning process of the pronunciation). When this kind of sound is produced, the airflow will not be very smooth, but it is not obstructed obviously. It is a sound between vowels and consonants.
Therefore, since this sound is at the beginning of a word, Mongolian adds a "/o/" sound in front of it, which means "Russia".
因此，由于此声音是单词的开头，因此蒙古语在其前面添加了“ / o /”声音，表示“俄罗斯”。
Because China and Rose did not have frequent contact for a long time in history, most of the initial contact was through Mongolians, so the Mongolian pronunciation was borrowed and called "Russia".
In history, there is a concept for the Rus nation, called "All Rus", or "East Slavs". They can be divided into three parts: Big Rose, Little Rose and Belarus. The Big Rus can basically be regarded as the present Russia, the Little Rose can basically be regarded as the present Ukraine, and Belarus is probably the present Belarus.
However, this concept is not commonly used at present, especially in Ukraine. The locals do not like the title of "Little Ross", but emphasize the difference between the Ukrainian nation and the Russian nation.
And here in Belarus, they also declared on the official website of the embassy in China that the Chinese name of the country should be "Belarus", not "Belarus". However, on the official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China, the country is still called "Belarus".
We just said that the "white" of "Belarus" means white in the source language. So is there a "Black Rose"? Actually there are.
The location of Black Rose is probably on the historical Baltic coast, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and later parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In addition, there is the Red Rose, in parts of western Ukraine and southeastern Poland. The 16th-century historian Alexander Guarnini also mentioned in his work that the Rus region was divided into three parts. Under the rule of the Grand Duke of Moscow it was called Belarus, under the rule of Poland it was called Black Rus, and the rest was called Red. Rose. Black Rose and Red Rose often substitute for each other in the local language, and sometimes they are also used as synonyms, not a very strict concept.
黑玫瑰的位置可能在历史悠久的波罗的海沿岸，立陶宛大公国以及波兰-立陶宛联邦的后来部分。此外，在乌克兰西部和波兰东南部的部分地区还有红玫瑰。 16世纪的历史学家亚历山大·瓜尼尼（Alexander Guarnini）在他的作品中还提到，罗斯地区被分为三个部分。在莫斯科大公统治下，它被称为白俄罗斯，在波兰统治下，它被称为黑罗斯，其余被称为红色。玫瑰。黑玫瑰和红玫瑰经常以当地语言相互替代，有时它们也被用作同义词，不是一个非常严格的概念。
So named, there is a very simple saying that these colors refer to the main colors of the clothes and hair of local residents. However, there is no evidence to support this claim, and it is basically justified, and the credibility is not high. People in these places don’t know why there are three categories of black, white and red, and there is no clear and convincing record in history, which can basically be regarded as having no reason. There are only a few popular guesses:
First, these three colors come from the "four elephants" in Chinese culture. In traditional Chinese culture:
The eastern totem is the blue dragon, the heavenly stem is A and B, the five elements are wood, and the color is blue;
The western totem is the white tiger, the heavenly stem is Gengxin, the five elements are gold, and the color is white;
The southern totem is the Vermilion bird, the heavenly stem is Bingding, the five elements are fire, and the color is red;
The totem in the north is basalt, the heavenly stem is Rengui, the five elements are water, and the color is black.
The Red Rose is oriented to the south and the red of the Suzaku is used; the Black Ross is oriented to the north and the black is basalt; and the Belarus is oriented to the west and the white of the white tiger is used.
Some researchers claimed that this was mainly because the local area was affected by the Mongolian invasion in history. The Mongols also had the concept of the four elephants and brought this concept to the Ross area.
If explained according to this logic, there should be a "green Rose" in the east. Certain information can also find the so-called "Qing Ross". However, it should be noted that Belarus, Black Rose and Red Rose have exact records and names in history. But there are not many claims about "Qingluo", only some unverified legends circulated. There is a saying that "Blue Rose" refers to the area of Moldova now. If it is Moldova, the position is indeed east, which is consistent with the four elephants.
如果按照这种逻辑解释，那么东方应该有一个“绿玫瑰”。某些信息也可以找到所谓的“ Qing Ross”。但是，应该指出，白俄罗斯，黑玫瑰和红玫瑰在历史上有确切的记录和名称。但是关于“青螺”的说法并不多，只有一些未经证实的传说流传开来。有种说法是``蓝玫瑰''指的是摩尔多瓦现在的地区。如果是摩尔多瓦，则其位置确实是东方，与四头大象一致。
In addition, there is a word in Russian called "молодой", which is probably pronounced "molodoy". The meaning of this word is "young, fresh." The origin of the name of the country of Moldova is different, one of which is derived from the meaning of "young". Moldova is located on a fertile plain, and may also be considered "green", so it has been dubbed the "Green Rose".
But if you explain it in this way, it doesn't correspond to the previous "Four Elephant Theory". Similarly, Belarusians are also seeking other explanations about their country's name. For example, some people think that "white" comes from the Baltic Sea. The source of the name of the Baltic Sea, there is a saying that comes from the original Indo-European root bhel, which means "white, beautiful".
It is also said that the word "white" means that this land does not depend on the Mongolians and Lithuanian feudal lords in history, and has maintained its own independence. The Belarusian Embassy in China also adopted this statement. Their original text on the official website is:
Even so, I didn't understand what is the inevitable connection between this meaning and whiteness (does it mean that I have a pure blood?). Russian linguist Trubachev refuted this statement, saying that it was a completely contrived explanation.
Others have moved out the explanation of religion: In the 13th-14th centuries, Western Europeans called the Ros who converted to Christianity the "White Ros", the unconverted pagans in the West were called the "Black Russ", and the pagans in the East were called the "Red Ros. ". But why choose these three colors, there is no strong explanation.
All in all, there is no unified, authoritative, and convincing explanation for the name "Belarus" (or "Belarus"), which has almost become an independent science. Just as in China, the origins of place names such as "Harbin" are also divided. From the perspective of linguistics and archaeology, we may not be able to give an exact answer. But when exploring these issues, perhaps our biggest gain is some new knowledge that we constantly learn in the process of exploration. This is also the charm of geography and humanities.